Friday, 11 September 2015

New Species of Human Discovered in "The Cradle of Humankind"

The remains, scientists believe, could only have been deliberately placed in the cave.

Skeletal fossils of Homo naledi are pictured above in the Wits bone vault at the Evolutionary Studies Institute at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, on Sept. 13, 2014. The fossils are among nearly 1,700 bones and teeth retrieved from a nearly inaccessible cave near Johannesburg. The fossil trove was created, scientists believe, by Homo naledi repeatedly secreting the bodies of their dead companions in the cave. Analysis of the fossils -- part of a project known as the Rising Star Expedition -- was led in part by paleoanthropologist John Hawks, professor of anthropology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

So far, parts of at least 15 skeletons representing individuals of all ages have been found and the researchers believe many more fossils remain in the chamber. It is part of a complex of limestone caves near what is called "The Cradle of Humankind," a World Heritage Site in Gauteng province well known for critical paleoanthropological discoveries of early humans, including the 1947 discovery of 2.3 million-year-old Australopithecus africanus.


"We have a new species of Homo, with all of its interesting characteristics," says Hawks, one of the leaders of a team that painstakingly retrieved the fossils under excruciatingly cramped and difficult conditions. "We now have the biggest discovery in Africa for hominins."

The find was reported today (Sept. 10, 2015) with the publication of two papers in the open access journal eLife by a group led by paleoanthropologist Lee R. Berger of the University of Witwatersrand. The expedition to retrieve the fossils and their subsequent analysis was supported by the National Geographic Society.

With a small head and brain, hunched shoulders, powerful hands and thin limbs, Homo naledi was built for long-distance walking, says Hawks, an expert on early humans. Fully grown, it stood about five feet tall, was broad chested, walked upright and had a face, including a smile that was probably more human than apelike. Powerful hands imply it was also a climber.

The fossils have yet to be dated. The unmineralized condition of the bones and the geology of the cave have prevented an accurate dating, says Hawks. "They could have been there 2 million years ago or 100,000 years ago, possibly coexisting with modern humans. We don't yet have a date, but we're attempting it in every way we can."

So far, the remains of newborns to the aged have been retrieved from the cave and the researchers expect that many more bones remain in the chamber, which is nearly 100 feet underground and accessible only after squeezing, clambering and crawling 600 feet to a large chamber where the brittle fossils cover the floor.

"We know about every part of the anatomy, and they are not at all like humans," notes Hawks, who co-directed the analysis of the fossils. "We couldn't match them to anything that exists. It is clearly a new species."

The astonishing find was made initially by amateur cavers and thought at the time to be a single hominin skeleton. The fossils were retrieved by a band of diminutive paleoanthropologists, all women, recruited for their size.

"Naledi" means star in the Sesotho language and is a reference to the Rising Star cave system that includes the chamber, known as the Dinaledi Chamber, where the fossils were found. The circuitous and difficult passage to the chamber narrows at one point to a bare seven inches.

In addition to identifying an entirely new species in the genus Homo, the collections of fossils, which bear no marks from predators or scavengers, are strong evidence that Homo naledi was deliberately depositing its dead in the cave, according to Hawks, a UW-Madison professor of anthropology.

"We think it is the first instance of deliberate and ritualized secreting of the dead," says Hawks. "The only plausible scenario is they deliberately put bodies in this place."

The cave, according to Hawks, was likely more accessible to Homo naledi than it is today for modern humans. Geochemical tests, however, show that the cave was never open to the surface, raising intriguing questions about the behavior and technologies available to the creatures.

"We know it was not a death trap," says Hawks, referring to natural features like hidden sinkholes that sometimes trap and doom creatures over long periods of time. "There are no bones from other animals aside from a few rodents. And there are no marks on the bones from predators or scavengers to suggest they were killed and dragged to the chamber. We can also rule out that it was a sudden mass death."

Instead, Hawks, Berger and their colleagues believe the chamber was something like a repository. "It seems probable that a group of hominins was returning to this place over a period of time and depositing bodies," Hawks explains, adding that the supposition is akin to discovering similar behavior in chimpanzees. "It would be that surprising."

The way the bodies are arranged and their completeness suggests they were carried to the cave intact. "The bodies were not intentionally covered and we're not talking about a religious ceremony, but something that was repeated and repeated in the same place. They clearly learned to do this and did it as a group over time. That's cultural. Only humans and close relatives like Neandertals do anything like this."

So far, no other organic materials or evidence of fire have been found in the cave complex.

Dating the fossils remains a key problem to solve, says Hawks. "We depend on the geology to help us date things, and here the geology isn't much like other caves in South Africa. And the fossils don't have anything within them that we can date. It's a problem for us."

One hope, he says, is finding the remains of an animal that may have been a contemporary of Homo naledi. The fossils are embedded in a matrix of soft sediment and there are layers that remain unexcavated.

According to Hawks, years of work remain at the site and to document and analyze all of the materials excavated from the Dinaledi Chamber. Plans, he says, include bringing many new technologies to bear on analyzing the fossils to help determine diet, rate of aging and where on the landscape the creatures may have been from.

The project to excavate the fossils and the May 2014 scientific workshop to analyze them were supported by the National Geographic Society, the South African National Research Foundation, the Gauteng Provincial Government, and Wits University. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation also provided support, as did the Texas A&M College of Liberal Arts Seed Grant Program.

Berger led the Rising Star expedition as National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence. The expedition involved an international team of scientists, including six "underground astronauts" who descended into the Dinaledi chamber to excavate and retrieve the fossils of Homo naledi.


"We need perhaps three or four individuals with excellent archaeological/paleontological excavation skills for a short term project that may kick off as early as November 1st 2013 and last the month if all logistics go as planned. The catch is this - the person must be skinny and preferably small. They must not be claustrophobic, they must be fit, they should have some caving experience, climbing experience would be a bonus. They must be willing to work in cramped quarters, have a good attitude and be a team player."

Although University of Wisconsin-Madison anthropology graduate student Alia Gurtov didn't quite know why she was raising her hand in response, she fit the bill. Slight in stature with a background in paleoanthropology, including work at famed Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, Gurtov took a flyer.

"I just applied," Gurtov recalls. "In a very bizarre email, I gave my dimensions and my CV" and soon after, the Wisconsin researcher was on a flight to South Africa -- where she would play a lead role in discovering and retrieving the largest, most complete store of hominin fossils on a continent famous for such discoveries.

A bantam frame was needed because Gurtov and five other small women scientists were about to enter a difficult and dangerous subterranean labyrinth. Going down into the South African earth, Gurtov and her diminutive colleagues would clamber, crawl, climb and, finally, drop into a space where they could enter a chamber last visited hundreds of thousands or perhaps millions of years ago by creatures that, scientists believe, were repeatedly secreting their dead companions, protecting them from scavengers and, at the same time, creating an astonishing paleontological record of a lost member of the tribe of humanity, a hominin species dubbed Homo naledi.

"It was very, very narrow," recalls Gurtov. "There is a 7-inch chokepoint. The only way I could fit in is if I had my head turned to the side."

The grueling 20- to 25-minute commute from daylight to the chamber of fossils included technical climbing, where the researchers, aided by an experienced caver, donned harnesses to mount a feature called the "Dragon's Back." Gurtov and her colleagues were forced to navigate several "squeezes," including one 15-foot section called the "Superman Crawl," where forward progress required wriggling on one's belly with arms extended like the soaring Man of Steel. The final leg of the underground foray, "the worst chokepoint," involved slithering down a 12-foot, crag-studded chute in the dark.

The expedition, overseen by noted paleoanthropologist Lee Berger of the University of Witwatersrand, was organized to investigate what was believed to be a single hominin skeleton, first spotted by cavers.

"You're in this initial chamber and then you have to squeeze through a crevice that opens into the chamber where the skull was observed," Gurtov explains.

Entering for the first time, she recalls, was a solemn moment. "It had the feeling of a tiny cathedral. It was just so still and dynamic at the same time. There was a sense of ages. It was absolutely silent. The floor was covered in skeletal material."

"We knew there was a skull in there. We had no idea we were going to find more than that," says the Wisconsin researcher.

Typically at the site of a hominin discovery, the first thing examined are the teeth, because they are telltale and -- as the hardest materials in the body -- tend to preserve well, says Gurtov, who spends much of her time at Tanzania's Olduvai Gorge looking at the teeth of animals preyed upon by ancient hominins. "We saw pretty quick that we had more teeth than would fit in a single mouth," Gurtov happily notes. When not in the cave, she lent her expertise on dentition to the group assembled to analyze the fossils.

Over that month in the field, Gurtov and her companions returned many times to the chamber, now known as the Dinaledi Chamber. Working 6- to 8-hour shifts below ground, the team recovered more than 1,500 pieces of bone by clearing the floor and excavating one small section of soft cave floor sediment, a puzzle box of fossils. "It was like pick-up sticks," says Gurtov. "You couldn't get one thing out without excavating something else. The sheer volume of material makes it unique."

The fossils were excavated according to the forensic techniques prescribed by paleontology, often with a toothpick, from the cave's clumpy, wet sediment. Wrapped in paper and nested in plastic containers, the bones of Homo naledi were prepped for the journey out to another kind of vault where they would be measured, documented, studied and reconstructed to reveal an entirely new species of hominin.

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