Sunday, 2 November 2014

Black Holes are Actually "Eternally Collapsing Objects" --Indian Physicist Refutes Hawking

NGC1277_Hubble (1)

Abhas Mitra, an Indian astrophysicist who heads the theoretical astrophysics section of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India is best known for his radical views on black holes and Big Bang Cosmology. Mitra claims to have offered exact proofs that (i) The so-called Black Holes cannot be true black black holes even within the context of classical General relativity and The Big Bang solution is illusory and actual universe must be fundamentally different from the big bang model.Consequently Dark Energy, his research claims, is an illusion caused by the departure of the complex universe from the simple big bang model.

Mitra's papers, published in peer reviewed journals since 2000 - that still remain unchallenged - maintain that there can be objects in the universe that are quasi-static or "eternally collapsing" but not exactly Black Holes. "This work was largely ignored by mainstream physicists as well as the media while Hawking's recent two-page online paper saying exactly the same thing has become hot international news," Mitra has expressed.

He said this happened even though several American astrophysicists verified his prediction that such quasi-Black Holes must have strong magnetic fields unlike the real Black Holes, adding that even Harvard University issued a press release to this effect in 2006.

A Black Hole, according to its proponents, results from gravitational collapse of a massive star after it runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion. A Black Hole is all vacuum except for an infinitely dense central point called "singularity," Mitra said.

The image at the top of the page is the largest known black hole in the universe at the center of galaxy NGC 1277, 220 million light-years from Earth, which tops out at a mass of 17 billion times that of our sun and makes up 14 percent of the galaxy’s mass—surpassing the usual .1 percent by leaps and bounds. At its heart, the black hole is more than 11 times as wide as Neptune’s orbit around the sun.

“This is a really oddball galaxy,” said University of Texas astronomy professor Karl Gebhardt. “It’s almost all black hole. This could be the first object in a new class of galaxy-black hole systems.”

As the theory goes, a Black Hole is surrounded by an imaginary boundary called "Event Horizon" that shuts everything within, allowing nothing - not even light - to escape. An object crossing the Event Horizon gets forever trapped and crushed at the singularity, destroying all the information about the object as well. This directly conflicts with the laws of quantum physics that say information can never be completely wiped out. This is the Black Hole "information loss paradox". (Read More: Stephen Hawking debunks Albert Einstein's black hole theory )

The Black Holes also pose a "Firewall Paradox" which arises from the claim that Event Horizon, under the quantum theory, must actually be transformed into a highly energetic region, or firewall, that would burn any approaching object to a crisp. Although the firewall obeyed quantum rules, it flouted Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, Mitra said.

Hawking's latest paper attempts to resolve the Firewall Paradox by proposing that gravitational collapse produces only an Apparent Horizon but not an Event Horizon that is the hallmark of a true Black Hole. He said the absence of Event Horizons means there are no Black Holes in the sense they are usually visualized.

Mitra said he has shown before that there can be no Event Horizon by using the classical theory without invoking uncertain quantum physics as Hawking has done.

In a series of peer reviewed papers, Mitra has shown that no true Black Holes can ever form. The so-called Black Holes observed by astronomers are actually radiation pressure supported Eternally Collapsing Objects (ECOs). These balls of fire are so hot that even neutrons and protons melt there and whose outward radiation pressure balances the inward pull of gravity to arrest a catastrophic collapse before any Black Hole or 'singularity' would actually form.

"Incidentally, our Sun is also a ball of fire hot enough to melt atoms," Mitra noted. "Thus, the realization that there can be no true Black Holes and the so-called Black Holes are actually ECOs resolve both the Information and Firewall paradoxes," Mitra said. "Hawking has now arrived at the same conclusion from tentative arguments while our results are based on exact calculations and were published in a series of peer-reviewed papers over 13 years ago," he added.

Mitra was the first physicist to coin the term ”Eternally Collapsing Object” (ECO) in the preprint entitled:”Final State of Spherical Gravitational Collapse and Likely Source of Gamma Ray Bursts” in

Mitra envisaged the ECOs to be ultra-magnetized objects, and in particular stellar mass ECOs to possess a magnetic field much stronger than that of Pulsars. Now, it is known that all magnetized astrophysical objects possess a magnetosphere where charged particles remain trapped. The most common example is Earth’s magnetosphere where charges arise from cosmic rays or solar winds. And if the magnetized object spins it can extricate charges from its own body, as is the case for pulsars.

Although the existence of objects compact enough to qualify as black hole candidates is beyond question and the existence of black holes is accepted by most astrophysicists, it is still observationally unclear whether event horizons can be physically realized in the collapse of stellar mass objects. Hence it is still necessary that we be able to exclude the possibility that GBHC might be intrinsically magnetized objects before we can say that they truly are black holes. It has recently been suggested (Mitra 2000) that, within the framework of General Relativity, trapped surfaces cannot be formed by collapse of physical matter and radiation. Such a view was also held by Einstein (1939).”

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